NEUROPSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL INTEGRATED THEORY ABOUT PERCEPTION IN LATERALIZATION PROCESSES
The integration of neurosciences for the study of the higher functions of human brain
Presented at V International Conference of International Organization of Psychophysiology – Budapest, July 9-14th 1990
The processes of lateralization represent now, to psychology, the basis of researches on higher functions of human brain. Intelligence, logic, creativeness begin to find explanation just within the associative and integrative processes that take place within the cerebral hemispheres. Through Neurophysiology we can follow the input within the physiological functions of the brain and verify the processes of activation-inhibition which totally rule the perception. Infact, the objective perception requests an inter-hemispherical synergism with a dominance of the right hemisphere; on the contrary the dominance of the right hemisphere produces repetitive, automatic, “obsolete” responses, limiting the creative capabilities of the brain.
By integrating the results of the researches performed worldwide on such processes, we are today able to hypothesize a logical line of the various perceptive phases to produce new “contributions” to the ancient dispute mind-brain.
The human evolution pushes mankind towards a gradual consciousness raising of life. The philogenesis, a process of endless energy transformation, “materializes” with ontogenesis in space and time a lot of physical and biological systems which, regardless of their duration, always and anyway produce some positive effects for the evolution of the energy.
These sentences which have an absolute scientific value, are legitimated by an integrated perception of physical dynamism of cerebral components which give life to the highest values of human thought. It’s impossible, infact, accessing to the comprehension of perception without a large knowledge of the energy being coded in the shape of real “messages” which reaches the sense organs and is decoded by them into further other forms of energy which excite the complex neuronal systems which, through sensations emotions and rationality give the individual conscience of one’s own existing and becoming.
The slow and hard path of neurosciences towards the comprehension of cerebral phenomena makes impossible the harmonic development of the entire human society. By convention, worldwide researchers within their own scientific disciplines a lot of data which, if integrated, accelerate the comprehension of the higher functions of human brain. Unfortunately, just due to some cerebral mechanisms, even within the scientific research a kind of negative competition exists, and it is in opposition with the scientific cooperation oriented to the research of the truth. In most of cases, infact, the researchers develop individualisms which lead to personal exaltation and to forms of power which suffocate the evolution of knowledge.
I have more than once said that all the mysteries of life are closed within the encephal and it’s within it that we have to search the explanation of birth and death of an organism, therefore we need courageous choices which allow us to unveil such mysteries and avoid mental pettiness which lead populations to self-destruction.
The birth and death of an individual are written on the chromosomes which give life to the same individual. It’s been experimentally proved how the cells of the organism can not duplicate over a certain number of times, like the nervous cells do not duplicate because as all of the possible energetic combinations for over hundred years of life are contained within their chromosomes, at a genetic level. The birth and are integrated within life which physiologically pre-exists to the individual. The explanation of such phenomena is within a new conception of a multidisciplinary and integrated approach method proposed by me since many years to the international scientific community. Such method is infact fundamental for the study of physiological processes , as we can not leave aside the fact that every system is physical, dynamic and “works” on the basis of fundamental principles of physics. All of the forces, therefore – gravitational, electromagnetic, chemical, mechanic, weak, strong etc.- dynamically rule every phenomenon. If we learn to use the enormous efforts performed by ingenious men who in the past have attempted to give very important tools to the scientific research for a better comprehension of the same phenomena, e.g. Von Bertalanfy who proposed the systemic approach, Wiener, the father of cybernetics, through which he intended to comprehend the dynamism of life, and, not last the integrated method proposed by me, which integrates both of general systems and cybernetics, it’ll be surely easier to us to produce useful knowledge to mankind.
The pragmatism of reached scientific knowledge will be like this only if we integrate the knowledge of all of the disciplines to comprehend Man in his Psychophysical and spiritual integrity. Otherwise, we feel allowed to assert that such knowledge with their chemical, physical and technological products are altering the dynamism of all of the balances of the ecosystem. The chemical manipulation of Nature, the genetic experimentation of living organisms make entropy raise dramatically, threatening the biophysical balances of all of living beings. That’s why nothing can now be comprehended without a strong finalization and integration of science. To reduce entropy we need to produce neghentropy, i.e. integrated knowledge for the harmonization of the biosphere.
TOWARDS THE DEFINITION OF AN INTEGRATED SCIENTIFIC METHOD FOR THE INTEGRATION OF NEUROSCIENCES
The priority question which it’s important to answer is which are the fundamental variables we have to refer to in order to remove that mechanic model which today is not enough to describe the dynamism of the real world in which we see ourselves as observers and interpreters. The first consideration to make is that the brains contains genetically in power all the gamma of the possible energetic combinations through which we measure, verify and memorize luminous, acoustic, chemical and mechanic energy which through the sense organs flows into the neurophysiological cerebral system. The fundamental paradigm of all of this is to be found in the conception according to which all of energy performs coding and decoding which we can conceptualize as a continuous exchange of information between physical and biological systems. All of this represents a decisive change compared to the previous variables Energy/Matter, now Energy/Matter/Information (paradigm EMI).
Proceeding in the building of such an interpretative system, we see that the energy flow which invests our senses derives from the decoding of the “matter”. Just the matter, in the terms we know it scientifically in its physical and biological dynamism; mentally it is represented by the received information in the shape of vibration waves, chemical exchanges and mechanic actions.
The neurophysiological integrative-perceptive system rebuilds what the informational system “Environment_1” sends in the shape of coded energy in terms of action units (quanta of energy per time). Within this the “mental objectivity” concept is configured. Memory acts as a dynamic storage of information received and integrated in various times and places, which can be later re-elaborated and integrated, giving life to the vision we have of the world and we transfer into the interactions with communication. The continuous energy exchange linked to einsteinian principle conceptualized by us as Energy-Matter-Information, produces continuous transformations in a way being directly proportional to the interacting information, where the speed of transformations depends on strength and acceleration impressed on information and on the physiology of the receiving physical system. This is a general law produced by us through integrated sciences which can be applied to all of physical and biological systems.
E.g. some enzymes within metabolism react quickly and are sometime able to operate on 106 molecules/sec. Consider the fact that a verbal information transmitted by the vocalization system travels through air at about 340 m/sec and, once it reached the eardrum, the information is decoded by the nervous receptors and transmitted to the perception areas at about 70-80 m/sec. Such process activates the metabolism of the nervous cells producing interaction among molecules with information exchanges at different speeds, coordinated by a biophysical system (genetic) which follows its logic dynamically organised.
As we saw the process is continuous and, regardless of physical, chemical, electromagnetic transformations which operate in the transport of information, the initial substance of the message “doesn’t change”. Every interacting system supplies the required energy to perform an useful work to the consciousness raising, supporting at the same time the evolution of all of the physical systems involved in the operation.
We can’t therefore help thinking about the ‘continuum’ of intense biophysical activities and about the ‘intelligent’ logic that rules ‘life’ of the molecules, cells and organisms generally. We can therefore say that everything is related to what we want to detect and to the template used in the interpretation of the detected data. Our interpretation ‘model’ is dynamic, integrated and overall it remains ‘open’, so that every detected data in the observation is located within the perceptive system, increasingly enriching the dynamic vision of the phenomenon. Further Analyzing the role of the vibration status of Matter/Energy decoded and coded into useful information for the consciousness raising, we see how the ‘visible’ electromagnetic spectrum, from 3.8x1014Hz to 7.7x1014Hz, sound ‘waves’, from 20 to 20x103Hz and chemical and sublimated chemical substances and other kinds of mechanic temperature pressure energies neurophysiologically integrate creating that vibration status of molecules within the nervous cells and giving life to what we refer to as intelligence, creativity, altruism and selfishness, joy and suffering of the biological world and human society.
From this we understand how any specific knowledge requires a multidiscipline approach and the results are to be integrated to comprehend the physiology of the phenomenon. The conscience raises, therefore, from the movement of the energy, always linked to the physical characteristics of the information, to the communication system and to coding and decoding system of received and transmitted energy. What changes time by time are shape and speed of information which product different phenomena on the base of the evolutionary level of the receiving-transmitting system. From the simple electron to the galaxies everything is information, moves and evolves generating continuous transformations of energy. As we are to see farther, the study of the upper functions of the human brain through this new integrated method allows such a ‘freedom’ of the researcher’s mind to allow him to perceive and integrate information that are normally discriminated by those mental ‘filters’ given by the present educational system. This method will surely produce more creativity and less individual and social conflicts.
FOUNDATIONS OF INTEGRATED PHYSIOLOGY FOR THE STUDY OF HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF HUMAN BRAIN
The anatomic-functional organization of the encephal offers a lot of starting points to those who intend to put together shape, dynamism and substance. At a first sight it looks impossible thinking that the neurophysiologic structures of the encephal may give life to those forms of great human geniality which during history have made uncancellable their works. The non-comprehension of such processes allowed and allows to develop thesis and theories which still today negatively influence the evolution of mankind.
The main anatomic structures of the encephal are made of two great hemispheres kept together by the corpus callosum which, with about 200M fibers in man and a minimum of 25% more in woman, allows a dynamic kind of communication among all of the main areas of cerebral cortex of both hemispheres. Present neurophysiologic knowledge suggests the cerebral cortex as the goal of ‘all’ of sensorial information. Such goal allows the individual to raise consciousness.
Every cerebral hemisphere has been divided into lobes: frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital. Such a division has gradually brought towards the individuation of areas to which specific functions have been attributed.
So we get to Brodmann’s and others’ work, who gave the opportunity to individuate at an anatomic and functional level the citoarchitectural of the brain. Going on the path of the infinitely small, we get through neurochemistry into the nervous cells, to discover which logic DNA replies through to sensorial stimulus producing chemical and bioelectrical messages, creating a thick communication net between the inside physical world and the outside physical world. Two worlds in a continuous interaction and communication, which allow in time to form, within the encephal an “I” through which it’s possible reaching such high knowledge levels to make man “Lord” of his habitat and of the Universe.
We are now capable to understand the physicality and the dynamism of the communication between encephal and environment. We can identify at a physical and chemical level the information, in transmission and perception phase. It’s possible, finally, analyzing all the path and the characteristics of the information and of the transport vehicle in “visible” and “invisible”. This is even for all of the other kinds of information (sounding, chemical and mechanic) till the moment the invisible becomes visible, the not audible becomes audible, etc. i.e. the moment the cerebral cortex specifically excited by the information makes us conscious of the characteristics carried by the same information.
As we can see, the “coding” of this hypothesis or theory of perception of mine just highlights the physicality of the substantial continuum which rules the physiology of perception, without repeating what all of those who operate in research of neurophysiological sciences know. This is to avoid a waste of energies which may certainly be used in a more useful way.
The physiology of perception must, therefore, consider the new paradigm we introduced (E/M/I), i.e. all of the matter is coded energy and, therefore, information. The information has been defined by me “the exchange coin of the energy”. Our sense organs are in fact energy transducers: their physical difference is linked to the capability of the brain to perceive all of the forms of energy of our ecosystem. The evolution of science has arbitrarily produced separations between a kind of energy and another, creating an entire series of codes, symbols, and conventions which the brain tries to integrate into the nervous system. The Nature has its own codes through which gives life to what we call physics, chemistry, biology, etc.. As we see the “intelligence” of the Nature, through its own codes, “uses” very well all of the energies in a dynamic and integrated way, and ,regardless of our knowledge, puts us into concrete form and pushes us, afterwards, towards the realization of an “I” within which everybody can get to decide, want, “can”, create and know, just because the “I” will be an identification outside of the time which can act in time and space. The memory, therefore, becomes the “I”, if the “I” is capable to identify the space with all of its messages and, at the same time, transcend time and space projecting into the present the future actions through the memory which makes the past live in the present.
What does memory mean in the life of the human being? By answering this question we not only discover the target of the perception, but even the goal of life. In fact we are now sure that every human being is born and dies: such a biological cycle would be useless if there wasn’t the dynamism of the memory which, moment by moment, modifies therefore transforms the quality of the energy. From the radiation to the molecules, from the unicellular and multicellular organisms, to Man, the memory is the real richness, it’s the real patrimony of the physical system, which develops the capability to produce information and interact with the environment, identifying oneself and it. All of this is configured in the principle nothing is created nothing is destroyed everything is transformed. Here is, therefore, an explanation hypothesis according to which every element must interact, exchange information as this makes the system evolve. In fact, a lot of experiments and studies performed on kids demonstrates that, from the birth, the being has a lot of drives, pushing him to “want” self-determination (justice, freedom, socialization, continuous enrichment of information, wish to know, etc.). That’s why birth and death are substantially part of life of the organism which, through its vital cycle is integrated in a dynamic system on whose base everything is transformed, but doesn’t die. What is sure is that the evolution happens thanks to the physical capability to memorize the information and to continuously transform the energy enriching the system with new information. In physics, in fact, the death concept does not exist, and we are physical entities ruled by physical laws. We can now redefine the concept of perception: “The perception is the act through which the being identifies the physical characteristics of the environment”. The conscience is the result of the memories, of what is perceived, which is dynamically enriched in time and space. The quality of the information in the perception determines the “quality” of the conscience. The perception takes place through earing, visual, chemical, mechanical information, and can be determined by natural or artificial information. All of the natural information are qualitatively valid, i.e. all of those information sent to the brain from everything that is produced by Nature; on the opposite, all of the information produced by mankind are artificial (codes, symbols and conventions). If the mankind-produced information do not integrated with the those produced by Nature, they produce conflicts, imbalance and lateralization within the brain the cito-architecture is activated of the two cerebral hemispheres is activated by the physical characteristics of the natural information, which always allow a synergic and integrated if lateralizing memorizations have not become estabilished. In such a case the right hemisphere perceives the information and the left hemisphere, instead associates it to a pre-memorized information. Here is the extreme importance of information. The quality of life and environment depends on it. The present status of entropy of the Planet, of the society, is produced by the ignorance we have of this process which brings us to prefer quantity of information and not quality. In fact, the scientific method currently used by all of disciplines ignores the “concept of quality”.
The concepts of quality and quantity have been until today the topic of philosophical disquisitions, but thanks to the new scientific acquisitions and to the Integrated Sciences they may and have to be a topic of physiology.
No physiologist can in fact analyze and describe a process without deeply knowing the physical laws that rule it. The laws decoded until today are approximate and they too often reduce the system – dynamic and integrated by nature – to a pile of not always confirmed hypotheses, reducing everything to a fragmentary not physiological, i.e. natural, explanation. It seems that the knowledge acquired by science are lacking of those harmonic vibrations which animate the natural processes. This means that the relationship between the cognitive product and the concrete reality is such to prevent the opportunity to acquire through science the “soul” of what we want to mentally represent.
The hypothesis now must not be confirmed by the experiment, but by concrete reality, i.e. by the natural process. Nature must confirm our science, this will surely help a re-balancing of the biosphere and, overall, of the brains, which won’t be anymore antagonists of our biology, produced by the laws of the Nature, i.e. by natural information exchange.
New parameters for the physiological research therefore emerge, that may be summarized as follows:
1. The Einstein conception Energy-Matter becomes Energy-Matter-Information (E/M/I):
a – every physical and biological system is produced by the information and produces and exchanges information;
b – all of energy transformations take place through information exchanges on the base of what is expressed at –a- point;
c – the several forms of energy are always and anyway information constantly reacting in a continuum which, regardless of the form, always and anyway produces evolution;
d – all of the acquired knowledge about the several forms of energy are to be integrated so that the cognitive tools confirm the dynamism and the dynamic inter-dependency of the several forms of energy.
2. The memory and the consciousness raising justify the form in time and space:
a – every physical and biological organism produced by the information lives in time and space to get a sense of the information that determined it;
b – the evolution of the species or the physical system exists for the time required for the consciousness raising;
c – the evolution is a continuous enrichment of the conscience and the process that determined it. The “completion” of such conscience formally transforms the system into new energetic dimensions.
3. The brain of Man (woman-man) contains in power the evolution of all of the physical and biological elements existing on our planet:
a – the evolution of mankind gradually brings Man towards a consciousness raising of all of the processes that determined it;
b – the evolution of knowledge brings Man to perform outside of himself what he has already performed in conscience on the base of physical, chemical, biological laws that determined it. Therefore he gradually takes possession of knowledge of himself.
4. The highest level of knowledge, reached by human evolution about “physiological” functions of the brain, is summarized by the creation of the computer and media like TV, radio, etc. In fact the social organization is almost completely entrusted to the logic through which computers elaborate information: that’s why most of human beings carry out logical systems which can be perfectly reproduced by a computer.
a – Love, Joy, Justice, freedom, pan, hate, aggressiveness, competition are concept not scientifically cleared up and this makes mankind grope in the dark producing considerable dramas and damages.
The above leaves no doubt about the fact that, in order to solve the problems of the world, it is necessary to clear up scientifically how joy, love, justice, freedom, etc., originate within the human brain, in order to be able to carry them on a social and human level, to accelerate the evolutional process.
THE FUNCTION OF THE INFORMATION IN THE LATERALIZATION PROCESSES
On the base the foundations of integrated physiology expressed above we step to analyze the neuropsychophysiological mechanisms that rule the perception within the lateralization processes of the two cerebral hemispheres.
For a long time neurophysiological sciences didn’t give much importance to the duality of nervous systems both central and peripheral. The studies of Sperry, others, and my own ones demonstrate, on the opposite side, the reasons why two cerebral systems live together within us, and they develop two kinds of conscience which can ignore each other or cooperate, but never copy each other. This means that in most of cases “two persons” live together within us: one is free from aggressiveness, antagonism, opposed to kind of discrimination with the possibility to integrate new information (right hemisphere); the other always wants the last word, discriminates, fights to impose his own personality in the environment, has many adaptation difficulties to everything being new to his mnemonic filed, learns new information only if they are useful to avoid coercions or get rewards (left hemisphere).
It’s not difficult, at this point, understanding which kind of hemisphere or personality has been favourite in the Homo Sapiens’ civilization, i.e. which is the dominant hemisphere.
This short premise is required to frame the neurophysiological situation appeared from a lot of experiments performed on patients whose corpus callosum had been cut off due to serious epileptic ailments, damages on several cortical areas, psychopathologies of several kinds.
The large scientific literature existing on this topic confirms the above said.
One of the first questions I asked myself was why two cerebral hemispheres anatomically the same live together while, as a matter of fact, for the social relationship life we develop a left hemisphere personality. In fact the language, mathematics and the logical reasoning physiologically refer to the left hemisphere, and as this is the dominant one he created a society in his likeness, i.e. a competitive society, where everybody wants to impose his own mental models, where the rule of reward and punishment is in force, and where you fight and discriminate all that is different from yourself. In synthesis, we look for the power as an instrument to rule on the others.
The “positive” aspects of the left hemisphere are the planning of human society through collective models, repetitive in all of the environments of social life. This helped the worldwide distribution of the knowledge being reached by human evolution, creating, more over, to the technology which produces instruments capable to enhance the operational and perceptive capabilities of the left hemisphere.
Science, in fact, explains and demonstrates itself, but not the dynamism of life. “Physiology”, therefore, is almost excluded from the acquisition possibilities of the left hemisphere.
The basic hypothesis introduced by me, at several meetings, about the reasons physiologically differencing the functions of the two hemispheres, highlights an evolutional process being ruled by the neuropsychophysiology of perception, more than the genetic nature of the two hemispheres.
In fact, at the birth, the two hemisphere don’t have large anatomical and functional differences. The lateralization processes are activated by the information that reach the sense organs. In fact, babies are not much lateralized and in the case of a left emispherectomy, the right hemisphere may take-charge to develop almost all of the functions that were attributed to the left hemisphere, with some behavioural modifications that are very interesting from a neuropsychophysiological point of view as they are typical of the logic through which the right hemisphere elaborates information.
In fact the right hemisphere does not learn to repeat, but it’s always original in its reply, at least when the left hemisphere allows it, as its perception is “physiological” to the information. The left hemisphere, on the opposite side, not always perceives the information physiologically as the incoming input nearly always evokes by association a pre-memorized similar information which, through its formal content, replies to the environment. From this we deduce that the left hemisphere is not objective to reality, but replies and defends the accumulated and reinforced through years mnemonic content.
By deeper analyzing the perceptive phase of the two hemispheres we notice for example that every input separately reaches the two hemispheres, to be elaborated at several levels of functional hierarchy. In this passage we just consider the upper functions of the brain relating to acoustic and visual ways , as it is mainly through them that most of lateralization processes happen, even if all of the other sense-related organs like taste, smell, touch, and those within the organism delegated to the control of sense-motor functions, can not be separated from the global process related to the development of conscience.
In fact, I previously explained that every sensorial input of every physical nature, if it is physiological, i.e. natural, not coded by Man, may be decoded within the several neurophysiological structures into other energy forms. For example through the touch, which uses mechanical transducers, we can rebuild through association an image, a sound, a smell, a taste, etc. This means that information can give life to a form of cortical synergic “reverberation” which may “transcend” the same physical characteristics of the activating input and bring the brain to levels of re-elaboration of the initial information towards the great intuitions and the “transcendence”.
The cortical functions lateralize, on the opposite side, those information coded by us to the shape of codes, symbols, conventions, models, notions, which conserve the characteristic of repetitiveness.
For more explanation we say that an information that has not to be re-elaborated creatively, which doesn’t keep a co-acting link with the “objective reality”, contains within the automatism of repetitiveness, “creating” a “closed” informational system which forces the brain to memorize the information basically on the reward, punishment, gratification and penalization principle.
We previously explained that energy in biological systems and in physical environment is dynamic and integrated. Everything is information and everything is transformed and evolved through the action of the same information. The dynamic interdependency of the several forms of energy, therefore, exists. As a direct consequence, the information which lateralize the upper functions of the human brain are antagonist of the principle of dynamic interdependency and this creates limitations to the evolution of conscience. Therefore the repetitiveness is antagonist of the creativeness, of the cognitive growth.
University and scholastic didactics, in fact, mainly in science, applies the repetitiveness method, which on one side helps the distribution of acquired knowledge, and on the other side lateralizes the functions of the two cerebral hemispheres, strongly slowing down the inter-hemispherical synergism, the cortical reverberation, the intuitions, the creativity. Moreover, such a process, if brought to the paradox, produces negative effects in the range from personality disorder to schizophrenia.
The psycho-physical wellbeing comes from the inter-hemispheric synergism because, as everybody knows, every psychological conflict status is psychosomatically elaborated through the psycho-neuro-endocrine axis. One syndrome, defined by me “syndrome of functional inter-hemispherical disconnection” afflicts today mainly the highly technologically developed countries. The symptoms is detectable from the missing capability by the individual to associate the “human” aspects to culture and science. In fact the humanization of culture and science consists of integrating the acquired knowledge for the understanding of the natural processes that happen within and outside us.
Our humanity is linked to the physiology of the functions of the right hemisphere, which maintains a physiological interaction with the environment. Anybody can verify this process on the population.
Inside other works we’ll be deeper dealing with such a topic, as every assertion of this relation is the “fruit” of years of study aiming at the understanding of the physiology of the upper functions of the brain through a method I can define as “spontaneous”, subsequently coded into “Integrated Sciences”.
Physics are the starting point for the understanding of the environment, of the ecosystem and of ourselves contained within it. In our case, Man is the expression of endless physical processes and remains, with his biology, integrated to the ecosystem, and through his upper neuropsychophysiological functions he can transcend his physical dimension and space out within the Universe.
The brain, therefore, with its marvellous frontal lobes, with its temporal-parietal-occipital associative areas is “waiting” to be used.
We use, in fact, not much our frontal lobes and overall with present science and culture we partially keep them separated. The solution of the problems of the world lies within them. It’s childish thinking and writing, as I read in some neurophysiology works, that their functions are not so important for the relationship life. This can be true for those who live their life on a vegetative-like level, but not for those who gave and still are giving lights to human evolution in science and all other fields of human knowledge.
We who dedicate our life to the advancing of neuropsychophysiological knowledge have the responsibility of what is happening worldwide due to the lack of unambiguous knowledge about the upper functions of the human brain, which particularly reside within the frontal lobes and within the characteristics of the information which since the birth on penetrate and develop all of the functions of both the central and peripheral nervous system.
I recommend You to other works for more explanation on what above expressed and, overall, about the bibliography.
What is sure is that we need to have the courage to express ideas, studies and researches which can pull mankind out from the scientific and cultural stall it is lying within.
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